The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer secreting melatonin, responsible for the physiological circadian rhythm control. A new form of biomineralization has been studied in the human pineal gland. It consists of small crystals that are less than 20 µm in length. These crystals could be responsible for an electromechanical biological transduction mechanism in the pineal gland due to their structure and piezoelectric properties. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), we identified crystals morphology and showed that they only contain calcium, carbon and oxygen elements. Furthermore, the selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy established that the crystals are calcite. We will now focus on the physiological effect of micro-crystals in pinealocyte cell culture under Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic-Fields (RF-EMF).”
“Because of the fast development of mobile telecommunication, the interaction of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) with biological environment becomes a public health concern. Although the action of non-ionizing radiation on biology is still unclear, several hypotheses of interaction have been suggested: hot spot phenomena, ADN/RF-EMF interaction, EMF effect on cellular development (oncology) [1-3].”
“The pineal gland converts a neural signal into an endocrine output. The most important hormone it secretes is melatonin the main role of which is to control the physiological circadian rhythm . Two biomineralization forms can be observed in the pineal gland. Concretions so called “brain sand”, a polycrystalline complex of few millimeters long, and microcrystals the length of which does not exceed 20 micrometers. While concretions have been extensively studied [5-9] no study has been published on the micro-crystals. In this article the micro-crystals were analyzed with different biophysical techniques. Their physicochemical properties and particularly piezoelectricity would give them an active role in a potential mechanism of electromechanotransduction in the pineal body.