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THE PINEAL GLAND
A Neuroendocrine Transducer of Light Information
The Pineal Gland (epiphysis cerebri in mammals), conferred as “the seat of Human soul” by Rene Descartes in 17th century, was considered as an epithalamic appendage of the vertebrate brain, and a vestigial evolutionary element until the 19th century. The endocrine aspect of the pineal gland reported in the early 20th century was confirmed through isolation of the hormone melatonin by Aaron B. Lerner in 1958. The pineal thus attracted scientific attention in the late 20th century due to its crucial role of transducing photoperiodic information through the rhythmic secretion of the daily and annual timekeeping hormone melatonin. It is now confirmed to be the neuroendocrine transducer of photic information into an endocrine response through the synthesis and release of the hormone melatonin.
Functional Organization of the Pineal Gland Exhibits a Unique Evolutionary Trend
The pineal gland develops from the roof of the embryonic forebrain and in adult brain. The pineal, together with habenula and the stria medullaris, constitutes the epithalamus. Evolutionary trends leading to the progressive replacement of direct photosensitivity (characteristic of non-mammalian vertebrates) by indirect photosensitivity (characteristic of mammals) have led to dramatic changes in the structure and function of the pineal gland (Falcon et al., 2009). The pineal gland of non-mammalian vertebrates is primarily composed of pinealocytes, which are structurally analogous to retinal cones, lower order neurons and interstitial glial cells (Collins et al., 1989; Falcon, 1999). The organization of the pineal in these animals resembles the vertebrate retina, albeit with much less complexity (Ekstrom and Miessl, 1997; Falcon 1999), and is indicative of its role as a luminance detector (Ekstrom and Miessl, 1997). In the mammalian pineal, the pinealocytes have lost the capability to directly respond to light, and their major function is the synthesis of melatonin (Falcon, 1999). However, it is worth noting that in neonatal rats and/or hamsters, the pinealocytes develop photoreceptor like characteristics that disappear after postnatal development birth (Clabough 1973; Zimmerman and Tso 1975). A series of studies have also shown that much of the photoreceptive machinery is still present in the pineal of neonatal mammals (Blackshaw and Snyder,1997), and that the pineal of neonatal rats may be capable of direct photosensitivity in vivo (Zweigg et al., 1966; Machado et al., 1969) and in vitro (Tosini et al., 2000; Fukuhara and Tosini 2003). Finally, it has also been suggested that melanopsin may mediate the photosensitivity observed in the neonatal pineal (Saafir et al., 2006). The reason why the mammalian pineal has lost the capability to directly respond to light is unknown, but it is believed to be a consequence of the evolutionary history of mammals
Dark matter DNA active in brain during day-night cycle
NIH study of rats shows DNA regions thought inactive highly involved in body’s clock.
Long stretches of DNA once considered inert dark matter appear to be uniquely active in a part of the brain known to control the body’s 24-hour cycle, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health.
Working with material from rat brains, the researchers found some expanses of DNA contained the information that generate biologically active molecules. The levels of these molecules rose and fell, in synchrony with 24-hour cycles of light and darkness. Activity of some of the molecules peaked at night and diminished during the day, while the remainder peaked during the day and diminished during the night.
The material came from the brain structure known as the pineal gland. Located in the center of the human brain, the pineal gland helps regulate the body’s responses to day and night cycles, the researchers explained. In the evenings and at night, the pineal gland increases production of melatonin, a hormone that synchronizes the body’s rhythms with the cycle of light and dark. In many species, the pineal gland also plays a role in seasonally associated behaviors, such as hibernation and mating, as well as in sexual maturation.
The biologically active material arising from the pineal gland DNA is called long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). The lncRNA is distinct from the better-known messenger RNA (mRNA), which serves as a kind of template to translate the information contained in DNA for the manufacturing of proteins. The lncRNAs appear instead to be involved in activating, blocking or altering the activity of genes or influencing the function of the proteins, or acting as scaffolds for the organization of complexes of proteins. The researchers’ use of next-generation sequencing methods detected the lncRNA activity in addition to the mRNA they originally targeted, which helped them in making their discovery.
The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle. The pacemaking signal generated in the sinoatrial node travels through the right atrium to the atrioventricular node, along the Bundle of His and through bundle branches to cause contraction of the heart muscle. This signal stimulates contraction first of the right and left atrium, and then the right and left ventricles. This process allows blood to be pumped throughout the body.
The conduction system consists of specialised heart muscle cells, and is situated within the myocardium. There is a skeleton of fibrous tissue that surrounds the conduction system which can be seen on an ECG. Dysfunction of the conduction system can cause irregular, fast, or slow heart rhythms.